Geography of Estonia

Location:Eastern Europe, bordering the Baltic Sea and Gulf of Finland, between Latvia and Russia
Geographic coordinates:59 00 N, 26 00 E
Map references:Europe
Area:total: 45,226 sq km
land: 43,211 sq km
water: 2,015 sq km
note: includes 1,520 islands in the Baltic Sea
Area - comparative:slightly smaller than New Hampshire and Vermont combined
Land boundaries:total: 633 km
border countries: Latvia 339 km, Russia 294 km
Coastline:3,794 km
Maritime claims:territorial sea: 12 nm
exclusive economic zone: limits fixed in coordination with neighboring states
Climate:maritime, wet, moderate winters, cool summers
Terrain:marshy, lowlands; flat in the north, hilly in the south
Elevation extremes:lowest point: Baltic Sea 0 m
highest point: Suur Munamagi 318 m
Natural resources:oil shale, peat, phosphorite, clay, limestone, sand, dolomite, arable land, sea mud
Land use:arable land: 12.05%
permanent crops: 0.35%
other: 87.6% (2005)
Irrigated land:40 sq km (2003)
Natural hazards:sometimes flooding occurs in the spring
Environment - current issues:air polluted with sulfur dioxide from oil-shale burning power plants in northeast; however, the amount of pollutants emitted to the air have fallen steadily, the emissions of 2000 were 80% less than in 1980; the amount of unpurified wastewater discharged to water bodies in 2000 was one twentieth the level of 1980; in connection with the start-up of new water purification plants, the pollution load of wastewater decreased; Estonia has more than 1,400 natural and manmade lakes, the smaller of which in agricultural areas need to be monitored; coastal seawater is polluted in certain locations
Environment - international agreements:party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulfur 85, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Ship Pollution, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography - note:the mainland terrain is flat, boggy, and partly wooded; offshore lie more than 1,500 islands

Estonia Quickstats

  • Population: 1,315,912 (July 2007 est.)
  • Area: 45,226 sq km
  • Density: 29 /km² (173rd)
  • GDP (total): $26.85 billion (106th)
  • GDP (per capita): $20,300 (42nd)
  • Literacy: 99.8%

Languages of Estonia

Useful to know

  • Currency: Estonian kroon (EEK)
  • Dial code: +372

International Trade

External sites

More Resources

Estonia Internet

  • Usage: 670,000
  • Penetration: 49.8 %
  • Top Domain: .en

WT eBusiness info:

  • Success Ranking: 100
  • Market testing: Untested
  • Overall risk: High
  • Overall reward: Low


  • Tourism: 10%
  • eCommerce: 10%
  • Gaming: 10%
  • eLearning: 10%

Recent blog posts