Geography of Ecuador

Location:Western South America, bordering the Pacific Ocean at the Equator, between Colombia and Peru
Geographic coordinates:2 00 S, 77 30 W
Map references:South America
Area:total: 283,560 sq km
land: 276,840 sq km
water: 6,720 sq km
note: includes Galapagos Islands
Area - comparative:slightly smaller than Nevada
Land boundaries:total: 2,010 km
border countries: Colombia 590 km, Peru 1,420 km
Coastline:2,237 km
Maritime claims:territorial sea: 200 nm
continental shelf: 100 nm from 2,500 meter isobath
Climate:tropical along coast, becoming cooler inland at higher elevations; tropical in Amazonian jungle lowlands
Terrain:coastal plain (costa), inter-Andean central highlands (sierra), and flat to rolling eastern jungle (oriente)
Elevation extremes:lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m
highest point: Chimborazo 6,267 m
Natural resources:petroleum, fish, timber, hydropower
Land use:arable land: 5.71%
permanent crops: 4.81%
other: 89.48% (2005)
Irrigated land:8,650 sq km (2003)
Natural hazards:frequent earthquakes, landslides, volcanic activity; floods; periodic droughts
Environment - current issues:deforestation; soil erosion; desertification; water pollution; pollution from oil production wastes in ecologically sensitive areas of the Amazon Basin and Galapagos Islands
Environment - international agreements:party to: Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography - note:Cotopaxi in Andes is highest active volcano in world

Ecuador Quickstats

  • Population: 13,755,680 (July 2007 est.)
  • Area: 283,560 sq km
  • Density: 47 /km²
  • GDP (total): $60.1 billion (69th)
  • GDP (per capita): $4,776 (111th)
  • Literacy: 91%

Languages of Ecuador

Useful to know

  • Currency: US dollar (USD)
  • Dial code: +593

International Trade

External sites

More Resources

Ecuador Internet

  • Usage: 968,000
  • Penetration: 8.0 %
  • Top Domain: .ec

WT eBusiness info:

  • Success Ranking: 100
  • Market testing: Untested
  • Overall risk: High
  • Overall reward: Low


  • Tourism: 10%
  • eCommerce: 10%
  • Gaming: 10%
  • eLearning: 10%

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