Geography of Australia

Location:Oceania, continent between the Indian Ocean and the South Pacific Ocean
Geographic coordinates:27 00 S, 133 00 E
Map references:Oceania
Area:total: 7,686,850 sq km
land: 7,617,930 sq km
water: 68,920 sq km
note: includes Lord Howe Island and Macquarie Island
Area - comparative:slightly smaller than the US contiguous 48 states
Land boundaries:0 km
Coastline:25,760 km
Maritime claims:territorial sea: 12 nm
contiguous zone: 24 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin
Climate:generally arid to semiarid; temperate in south and east; tropical in north
Terrain:mostly low plateau with deserts; fertile plain in southeast
Elevation extremes:lowest point: Lake Eyre -15 m
highest point: Mount Kosciuszko 2,229 m
Natural resources:bauxite, coal, iron ore, copper, tin, gold, silver, uranium, nickel, tungsten, mineral sands, lead, zinc, diamonds, natural gas, petroleum
Land use:arable land: 6.15% (includes about 27 million hectares of cultivated grassland)
permanent crops: 0.04%
other: 93.81% (2005)
Irrigated land:25,450 sq km (2003)
Natural hazards:cyclones along the coast; severe droughts; forest fires
Environment - current issues:soil erosion from overgrazing, industrial development, urbanization, and poor farming practices; soil salinity rising due to the use of poor quality water; desertification; clearing for agricultural purposes threatens the natural habitat of many unique animal and plant species; the Great Barrier Reef off the northeast coast, the largest coral reef in the world, is threatened by increased shipping and its popularity as a tourist site; limited natural fresh water resources
Environment - international agreements:party to: Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Seals, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol
Geography - note:world's smallest continent but sixth-largest country; population concentrated along the eastern and southeastern coasts; the invigorating sea breeze known as the "Fremantle Doctor" affects the city of Perth on the west coast, and is one of the most consistent winds in the world

Australia Quickstats

  • Population: 20,434,176 (July 2007 est.)
  • Area: 7,686,850 sq km
  • Density: 2.6 /km² (224th)
  • GDP (total): US$718.4 billion (IMF) (17th)
  • GDP (per capita): US$34,359 (IMF) (14th)
  • Literacy: 99%

Languages of Australia

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  • Currency: Australian dollar (AUD)
  • Dial code: +61

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